Monday, August 24, 2020


RAWAN SULIMANI-t-THE GEORGEWASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW SCHOOL - Personal Statement Example I won't settle for second best and subsequent to getting information from George Washington University Law School I can be the business head I was destined to be. By business pioneer I mean a lady who is solid and pleased with her achievements. Why Law? Law is incredible and privileged. The law places judgment. Where I originate from, graduate school is normally for men. Ladies don't need to make due with common. Ladies can exceed expectations in any profession field. Acquiring my lords will demonstrate that ladies can achieve anything they set their brain as well. Great training is a need in a developing world. It is significant for individuals to turn out to be increasingly free and become a genuine model for the more youthful ages. The more genuine models that are set will just prompt better pioneers of tomorrow. I am sure that with my past achievements and new objectives set up that I will demonstrate and set models. These attributes are the stuff to be a pioneer, the kind of pioneer that originates from difficult work. Difficult work from legitimate instruction like that of George Washington University Law School is basic for self-awareness. The LLM program will accommodate my self-awareness

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Robot-Reply and the Definition of Being Human Essay

The Robot-Reply and the Definition of Being Human - Essay Example In observation, development, and through the impersonation of human activity, one may start to accept they are seeing a consciousness, however obvious awareness requires something else. Searle investigates the thought through an assessment of causality, that a being must have the option to make causality for its decisions through the structure of goal. In an assessment of the idea of expectation as it identifies with the production of consciousness, the investigation of the possibility of AI becomes as much a philosophical conversation as one of science. So as to examine the idea of man-made consciousness, one should initially talk about the possibility of awareness. Awareness implies that the musings of a being are coordinated by expectation and not directed through modified parameters inside which the considerations have been developed. Claudia Dreifus examined the development of social robots in the M.I.T. God and Computers venture with Anne Foerst, the religious counsel for the t ask. The requirement for a philosophical counsel originates from a need to make a talk on the significance of the human experience as it is being interpreted through a PC created impression of human conduct. On account of the M.I.T. venture, the possibility of encapsulation goes far in characterizing the ‘intrinsic value’ of the robot, the reason being that this implies the robot merits the regard of its impression of mankind since it has gotten exemplified. In relationship to this epitome, the robot, as indicated by Foerst, will build up the privilege to the sort of regard stood to people when it can never again be killed. At the point when a robot exists in a system of freedom and without the defenselessness of the switch, it turns into a being of plan. Through the socialization aptitudes that are being applied in the task, the robots they have made have just started to penetrate the shroud among mechanics and life. Searle examines making an intuition robot by making mental clarifications. These mental clarifications give a testing situation through which mental factors in people can be tried. This sort of A.I. requires subjective limits. Given the proper projects, a PC starts to have intellectual states. In the God and Computers venture from M.I.T. the robots are given humanoid epitome, their shape and presence in space relatable at a level that accommodates social collaboration. The inquiry that one can pose in relationship to the subjective states that PCs have been provided so as to make mental systems is whether those projects gain ‘life’ status when surrendered to the encapsulation of an automated shell. Characterizing the distinction between the manner by which the mind thinks and the robot forms is an endeavor to characterize human life rather than the responses of a machine that can figure human like reactions. At the end of the day, it is the conversation of what is human and what is human-like. The intriguing thing that c an be noted is that crowds and perusers of Shelley’s work once in a while consider that the creation made by Dr. Frankenstein is fundamentally discernable from human life. The body of the creation is human as it is built from human parts, and keeping in mind that the cerebrum is human it is

Friday, July 17, 2020

Employees Who Stay in Companies Longer Than Two Years Get Paid 50% Less

Employees Who Stay in Companies Longer Than Two Years Get Paid 50% Less For the longest time in the history of work, loyalty and dedication to a particular employer has been heralded as the hallmark of the ideal employee beyond just being good at their job.It is thus not surprising that the question of how long one should stay with one company before beginning to seek new opportunities keeps arising.The question is even more important now with growing uncertainties in the global labor market where one could find themselves unexpectedly becoming unemployed after spending in the upwards of ten years at the same company and have to grapple with the vagaries of job-seeking after a layoff.How long is too long to stay in one job? If you hate your current job and you cannot wait to move on, for how long should you stick around?While there is no simple answer to these and related questions, it is apparent that job seekers are increasingly getting worried about the impact the time they spent on their previous jobs could have on their chances of getting hired.Back in the day, you could have expected to stick with one employer for decades and retire with a comfortable pension, 401K or a golden watch, an option that is not any longer available for most of us.But staying for a very short time at a company could have you labelled a job hopper which raises a serious red flag to hiring managers.It can portray a prospective hire as somebody who cannot hold down a job, one who is unable to get along with workmates and lacking in commitment.On the other hand, in today’s environment, staying too long does not necessary gift you the loyalty dividends that employers would be typically looking for. It could signal that you are unmotivated, too comfortable with familiarity and unable to adapt.JOB HOPPING IS LOSING ITS BAD RAPThe good news as indicated by a 2011 PWC report, is that this long-held stigma against shorter stints is becoming antiquated fast as millennials continue to rise in the workplace.They bring with them expectations of continuous learn ing, development and steady advancement in their careers.The graphic below by the Bureau of Labor Statistics also shows that the number of jobs people hold within the course of their career has been steadily increasing. If you have been browsing through LinkedIn lately, you might have noticed that it is now a norm to switch a job every few years.In fact, an employment survey conducted by California-based global temp staffing firm Accountemps in 2015 affirms the projection that the future of work will be more characterized by career nomadism.Accountemps found that 57 percent of millennial workers (aged between 18 and 35) view changing jobs often as being beneficial to their careers.Even the older workers surveyed by Accountemps are no longer clinging to the dated belief of long-term company loyalty as much as would have been expected.Although they are not as enthusiastic in embracing job-leapfrogging, a significant 38 percent of workers aged between 36 and 54 consider the idea of changing jobs frequently to be beneficial.A more recent survey by staffing firm Robert Half puts the number of overall workers favoring job-hopping at 64 percent in 2018, up by 22 percent from a similar survey in 2014.They f ound a staggering 75 percent of employees under 35 felt job-hopping would be of great benefit to their careers.If the latest report on employee tenure released by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics in 2018 is anything to go by, it is possible to put a number to how long you should stay at a single job.The report indicates that wage and salary workers today change jobs every 4.2 years on average.The report further elucidates the incidence of job hopping as represented by the median tenure of millennial workers standing at 2.8 years as compared to 55-64 age cohorts whose median tenure at one company is 10.1 years.Career experts observe that changing employers or jobs sooner than later is not essentially a bad thing.It can be in fact a very good move for your paycheck, given studies that have proven that those who stick with the same employer for several years tend to have lower pay growth than the rest who don’t.ARGUMENTS FOR JOB SWITCHING A 2014 Forbes report says that st aying with the same employer for over two years on average will make you earn less over your lifetime by about 50 percent or more. Forbes says this estimate is in fact conservative.Financial services provider, Nomura, in a recent analysis confirms what has probably been on your mind every time you have considered switching jobs.That changing employers will almost always give you a bigger pay hike compared to staying with your current employer and betting on the periodic salary reviews or a promotion, if they indeed do come.Recent ‘Wage Tracker’ data from the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta and human resource firm ADP’s ‘Workforce Vitality Report’, Nomura found that growth in wage was significantly lower for ‘stayers’ as compared to ‘switchers’.Job switchers earned about 1 percent more year-over-year than stayers, a minimal difference from the surface if only one year is considered, but could accumulate to hundreds of thousands of dollars in lost wages when your ent ire career is factored.The longer you work at the same company, the bigger the difference will be over your lifetime.According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, the average raise an employee can expect in 2019 is about 3 percent with top performers expecting about 4 percent and the most underperforming employee could expect a 1.3 percent raise.With a Consumer Price Index inflation rate of about 2 percent, the actual raise you’d get if it is granted would be just about 1 percent.When compared to the average raise for an employee taking a new job at a new company the case for switching jobs becomes clearer when earnings are the most important factor.You would expect a pay bump of between 10 and 20 percent if you switch jobs. The figures are could be even higher depending on circumstances and industry.According to the Nomura report, switchers will likely have a stronger bargaining power and better salary increases when there are more opportunities in the market or when they find a higher-paid role better matching their talents.Sticking With One Company Without Advancing Could Cost YouWe change jobs for better opportunities; a better title, a better salary, more benefits, more meaningful or challenging work or even better work-life balance.It is possible to get this with your current employer through the company’s promotion program.But in this age of frozen raises, cutbacks and unemployment that would have some tell you that ‘you are in luck to even have a job’, this kind of advancement may not happen and you could end up stuck in a stagnant position for years in the name of job security.Changing jobs is one of the clearest ways to get better compensation for your skills and boost your longer-term earning potential.More research on external hires indicates an 18 to 20 percent higher pay for those hired eternally as compared to those banking on the internal promotion mechanisms in the same company.Management professor Matthew Bidwell, in a study investi gating the effects of external hiring versus internal mobility found that external hires earn much more than internal employees who have been promoted into the same jobs.He, however, notes that external hires often will have better education and experience than internal employees angling for the same positions.Bidwell’s research shows that employers tend to be more rigorous with the ‘externally observable attributes’ (i.e. education and experience) when evaluating prospective hires who are strangers to them which puts them at an advantage.If you stick to one employer without moving up the ladder, prospective employers are likely to be suspicious of your effectiveness in a new role.You do not only lose an opportunity to increase your earnings but also lower your chances of landing a new job.Marketability Versus Time on the JobWhile there is no strict time cap for when you should specifically jump ship, it is important to realize that the length of tenure at previous jobs is onl y one side of your career picture.If you can keep growing your skills, demonstrate that are great at evolving into new situations, taking up more responsibility and keep building a diverse professional network, the time limit becomes less of a worry.Staying for ten or more years at a job may be a positive thing if this is coupled up with gaining seniority and leadership responsibilities that give you more say in the company.Your loyalty and dependability points will be solid.But more often than not, as one IT recruiter observes, in today’s world, it’s easy to encounter employees let go after 10 plus years of service and they are basically left standing on island in their fields. Such people will find it hard to find new jobs.The idea of leaving a job because you have been there too long is too simplistic.If the opportunities for growth are clear, you have stayed up to date with your area of expertise and basically have been keeping your skills and yourself marketable, you can st ay.One advantage that switching jobs often gifts you is the opportunity to learn new skills and work in diverse environments that raise your profile as a multitalented and more marketable hire.Donna Svei, an executive search consultant at AvidCareerist advises individuals who have stayed at the same company for more than seven years to find ways to indicate their ability to adapt on their resume.This could be through mentioning involvement in a significant change management process, joint ventures or changing reporting relationships.Job Hoppers Have More Intellectually Rewarding CareersAlmost always early on in any job, the learning curve is quite steep and then it flattens.By the time you are over through the company’s onboarding plan which could be between one to two years at the same position, there’s often not much left to learn.What then would keep your brains alive by staying at that same job for another 20 years?Of course, you could be working in a rapidly changing work e nvironment such as in Information Technology, but here too the exit rates are even higher than in most other industries.If you switch jobs often, you are always being challenged to learn a lot. Job hoppers are seen to have a higher learning curve than stayers because they are often being placed outside of their comfort zones.This is as true for office skills as well as industry-specific knowledge and the all-too necessary emotional intelligence.Job hoppers joining new companies know they have to learn really fast, make impressions and appreciable improvements to the bottom line all within a few years before moving to the next challenge.They are thus inclined to be overachievers and learn a lot in a short time helping them maintain passion in their chosen career paths.The more you are forced into negotiating corporate hierarchies and office drama, the more likely you are to learn about people and become better at making interpersonal and professional decisions.You Will Have A More St able CareerA generation ago, workers could comfortably depend on an employer to provide career stability.You would have to be really old or completely out of touch with reality to think that that kind of stability would be applicable today in the face of just-in-time hiring, layoffs, contract workers and downsizing.Present-day career stability depends largely on you, which can be a scary thing to learn if you still hope to find that perfect employer.You can create career stability just on your own if you believe in your abilities and have a good understanding of your career.The key to this is networking. It is an established fact that the most efficient way to getting a job is through your network.You are almost assured that you might need to find many jobs in your lifetime based on the current labor trends.That is why you have to network as efficiently as possible because as research shows, a majority (over 70 percent) of people land jobs this way as compared to other routes.People who have worked for many companies have a much larger network than those who stay with one employer for long periods.In addition to this, as author Penelope Trunk argues, if you don’t change your job every few years, you do not develop skills that enable you to get jobs very quickly.You stay completely dependent on your employer as if it were 1950 when you would have been gifted a gold watch once your 50-year tenure ends, Trunk cautions.This is how job switching creates career stability.Technology Evolves QuicklyIf you intend to remain a top performer in your area of expertise, it goes without saying that you have to stay on top of emerging technologies.Take for instance a Windows systems administrator who has stayed at a company for over seven years, if they were to start finding a job after this tenure, it is possible that entire software and hardware lines are absolutely foreign to them effectively boxing them up into limited career choices.Thea Kelley, a San-Francisco-based j ob search and career coach narrates the tales of clients she has had previously working at a company using outdated technology under the false illusion that they would retire there.When the axe finally fell they had a tough time searching for new opportunities.She warns against allowing your skills and marketability to be frozen by holding to a job which is synonymous to riding a dinosaur without worrying about eventually turning into a caveman.The Grass is Often Greener at a New CompanyWe might often find ourselves in a job situation where there’s barely any room for advancement or where we have hit a ceiling.It is not unheard of either where managers dangle the possibility of a promotion in the near but unspecified future to keep an employee eager and deter exit when in reality that promotion may never come.When this happens, it is always wise to look elsewhere.This is in addition to the fact that job searching is actually a very rewarding learning experience in itself.You will learn more about yourself, about the opportunities available beyond your organization as you expand your networks and keeps you agile and ready to jump ship.Teri DePuy, a HR executive and career coach based in Colorado observes that career growth opportunities are more often than not found outside your existing employer. He advises, however, that this is based on correct timing.WHY DO JOB-HOPPERS GET REWARDED MORE?We have established that jumping ship can net you substantially more compensation as compared to being loyal and dedicated to your employer and waiting for a promotion or raise.One answer lies in the incidence of recessions and how they allow businesses to freeze payrolls, but not just for the short-term as should be.Media coverage of recessions and associated uncertainties have given employers the good excuse to shrink payrolls and lower salary expectations in the longer-term.That is why the 3 percent average raise is now the new normal.While this should affect both staye rs and leavers, the difference is that a stayer is more bound by the company’s internal remuneration structures.You start at a base salary and your annual raises are often calculated as a percentage of your base salary.This is quite limiting in the sense that your manager can only bump your salary based on your base salary.Another limiting factor is a cap on the number of promotions annually. You might be up for promotion but you have to wait much longer because of the queue caused by the limit.If you switch companies, however, you have a good chance to command a higher base salary and you will find many companies would be willing to pay higher for the right talent.Additionally, while your colleagues are waiting in line for a promotion, your resume may match a higher title at the new company and you can acquire it once employed.REASONS FOR WANTING TO JUMP SHIPWhile moving up the ladder and monetary compensation can be good reasons to wanting to move from your job, it is important to consider other factors.AgePersonal finance company LearnVest in an analysis of workers who have stayed long in one job observes that salaries often hit their plateau when employees are in their forties.They note that getting a new opportunity starts becoming harder past forty five years of age. If you are approaching forty, this is probably the best to go for higher paying jobs and higher titles.Have You Stopped Learning?If you feel you are no longer learning new things at your current job then, or if you feel like you have learnt everything there is to learn at that job, it might be time to start looking elsewhere for more challenging work.Tired of Working?Your job is getting old if you are experiencing decreased productivity.Maybe you find yourself spending more time on social media, accomplishing less than you used to on a working day putting off some tasks?Your career progression will be greatly hurt if you cannot easily identify very recent accomplishments.You cannot allow t his to continue, and your best option is to move to a new job that will give you new challenges.Has Your Income Stagnated?If you find yourself in an organization that limits pay increase even for the very best of performers, you may have a better chance to increase your earnings by switching employers.If you can demonstrate the value you have added to your past and current jobs, you will most likely bag a significant increase.Find Yourself Always Complaining About Your Work?If you cannot find anything positive to say about your current job or employer any more, you need to figure out if the dissatisfaction is caused by temporary, solvable factors or more enduring structural problems. If it’s the latter, then it is time to move on.WRAPPING UPIn a world where there’s an increasing ‘you are lucky you even have a job’   mentality, you could be forgiven for letting yourself be boxed up in a low-paying, unexciting job with little chance of advancement.But as we have established ch anging your job every two to three years can have enormous advantages for your career and personal life.You will gain invaluable skills in people management, have a more stable career, greater income and a solid network as compared to sticking to one company.But the decision to move must be carefully evaluated against the chance of being labelled a job hopper, missing other valuable opportunities or miscalculating the upside.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

How to Use the Modifier Most in English

The modifier most is commonly used in English in a wide variety of situations. You are probably familiar with the use of most in the superlative form, but there are other uses as well. Below you will find explanations of each of the different ways most is used to modify nouns, as well as in the superlative form and as an adverb. (The) Most is different than more which you can learn about on this page dedicated to the uses of more in English. (The) Most Superlative Form The most is used in the superlative form with adjectives of two or more syllables. The opposite of this form is the least (i.e. I enjoy corn the least of all the vegetables.) Examples: California is the most important state for the US economy.I think she is the most intelligent person I have ever met. One of the Most in the Superlative Form Its also common to use one of before the most in superlative forms to refer to something that is among a group of the most of a quality. The opposite of this form is one of the least (i.e. That is one of the least interesting films this year.) Examples: Peter is one of the most reliable people on this planet.Golden Retrievers are one of the most likable dog breeds. Most Noun Determiner Most is used before a noun as a determiner to speak in general. Remember that the plural form is used when speaking in general about countable items or people (Most people enjoy a vacation in the tropics). When speaking about uncountable objects, use the singular form (Most steel is used in construction). Examples: Most students would like to take a year off ​from studies to travel.Sharon said most food sold in supermarkets contains preservatives. Most of Determiner Noun Use most of the / a / this, etc. noun when referring more specific objects. Remember that the is used to indicate a specific object that both the listener and the speaker understand, whereas a is used to speak about something listeners do not which specific instance is referred to. This, these, that or those can be used as well as possessive adjectives such as my, your, his, etc. Examples: Most of my time is spent in a classroom teaching English.Sharon said that most of these trees were planted in 1878 by the organization. Most Alone Most can be used alone when the noun being modified is understood through context. For example, during a conversation, you may refer to a particular group of people and use most to indicate most of the people we are discussing. Examples: I think most believe the economy will continue to slowly improve.(Speaking to a friend about food items) I bought most at the supermarket downtown. (The) Most as Adverb (The) Most can also be used as an adverb to describe a that someone does or feels something the most compared to others. Examples: I like raspberry jam the most.She was hurt by John the most. Most Verb in Formal English Most can be used to mean very in formal English. This form is not common in everyday conversations, but you may certainly hear it in films such as historical fiction, stories about kings and queens, etc. Examples: I find it most disturbing that you continue to telephone.She felt the afternoon outing was most enjoyable.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Feminist Analysis Sadie s Dream For The World - 2223 Words

There are a lot of people in the real world who are just ignorant about transgender people. We need someone to educate the world on this. An essay written by an 11-year-old transgender child named Sadie Croft has been circulating in social media, bringing its clear call for transgender equality to wider attention. The essay, titled Sadie s Dream for the World, envisions a time when the discrimination and stigma that transgender people face on a daily basis at every age will be over. Sadie writes, It would be a better world if everyone knew that transgender people have the same hopes and dreams as everyone else. We like to make friends and want to go to school. Transgender people want to get good jobs and go to doctors like they are exactly the same. It really isn t that hard to like transgender people because we are like everyone else (Michelson, 2013). According to Huffington Post, Sadie began transitioning in kindergarten socially, and her moving words come on the heels of Presiden t Obama s historic inauguration speech, in which he called for gay and lesbian people to be treated like anyone else under the law. It is so encouraging to see a transgender youth coming out at an earlier age and showing the world who she is. Her stories are piling up, and awareness is in the atmosphere. Sage has an awesome family, who supports her and gives an inspiration for other parents out there less ashamed of finding out their child is transgender. We still have a long way to go in

Angels Demons Chapter 126-129 Free Essays

string(58) " Suddenly someone was yelling from the hospital entryway\." 126 Cardinal Mortati knew there were no words in any language that could have added to the mystery of this moment. The silence of the vision over St. Peter’s Square sang louder than any chorus of angels. We will write a custom essay sample on Angels Demons Chapter 126-129 or any similar topic only for you Order Now As he stared up at Camerlegno Ventresca, Mortati felt the paralyzing collision of his heart and mind. The vision seemed real, tangible. And yet†¦ how could it be? Everyone had seen the camerlegno get in the helicopter. They had all witnessed the ball of light in the sky. And now, somehow, the camerlegno stood high above them on the rooftop terrace. Transported by angels? Reincarnated by the hand of God? This is impossible†¦ Mortati’s heart wanted nothing more than to believe, but his mind cried out for reason. And yet all around him, the cardinals stared up, obviously seeing what he was seeing, paralyzed with wonder. It was the camerlegno. There was no doubt. But he looked different somehow. Divine. As if he had been purified. A spirit? A man? His white flesh shone in the spotlights with an incorporeal weightlessness. In the square there was crying, cheering, spontaneous applause. A group of nuns fell to their knees and wailed saetas. A pulsing grew from in the crowd. Suddenly, the entire square was chanting the camerlegno’s name. The cardinals, some with tears rolling down their faces, joined in. Mortati looked around him and tried to comprehend. Is this really happening? Camerlegno Carlo Ventresca stood on the rooftop terrace of St. Peter’s Basilica and looked down over the multitudes of people staring up at him. Was he awake or dreaming? He felt transformed, otherworldly. He wondered if it was his body or just his spirit that had floated down from heaven toward the soft, darkened expanse of the Vatican City Gardens†¦ alighting like a silent angel on the deserted lawns, his black parachute shrouded from the madness by the towering shadow of St. Peter’s Basilica. He wondered if it was his body or his spirit that had possessed the strength to climb the ancient Stairway of Medallions to the rooftop terrace where he now stood. He felt as light as a ghost. Although the people below were chanting his name, he knew it was not him they were cheering. They were cheering from impulsive joy, the same kind of joy he felt every day of his life as he pondered the Almighty. They were experiencing what each of them had always longed for†¦ an assurance of the beyond†¦ a substantiation of the power of the Creator. Camerlegno Ventresca had prayed all his life for this moment, and still, even he could not fathom that God had found a way to make it manifest. He wanted to cry out to them. Your God is a living God! Behold the miracles all around you! He stood there a while, numb and yet feeling more than he had ever felt. When, at last, the spirit moved him, he bowed his head and stepped back from the edge. Alone now, he knelt on the roof, and prayed. 127 The images around him blurred, drifting in and out. Langdon’s eyes slowly began to focus. His legs ached, and his body felt like it had been run over by a truck. He was lying on his side on the ground. Something stunk, like bile. He could still hear the incessant sound of lapping water. It no longer sounded peaceful to him. There were other sounds too – talking close around him. He saw blurry white forms. Were they all wearing white? Langdon decided he was either in an asylum or heaven. From the burning in his throat, Langdon decided it could not be heaven. â€Å"He’s finished vomiting,† one man said in Italian. â€Å"Turn him.† The voice was firm and professional. Langdon felt hands slowly rolling him onto his back. His head swam. He tried to sit up, but the hands gently forced him back down. His body submitted. Then Langdon felt someone going through his pockets, removing items. Then he passed out cold. Dr. Jacobus was not a religious man; the science of medicine had bred that from him long ago. And yet, the events in Vatican City tonight had put his systematic logic to the test. Now bodies are falling from the sky? Dr. Jacobus felt the pulse of the bedraggled man they had just pulled from the Tiber River. The doctor decided that God himself had hand-delivered this one to safety. The concussion of hitting the water had knocked the victim unconscious, and if it had not been for Jacobus and his crew standing out on the shore watching the spectacle in the sky, this falling soul would surely have gone unnoticed and drowned. â€Å"e Americano,† a nurse said, going through the man’s wallet after they pulled him to dry land. American? Romans often joked that Americans had gotten so abundant in Rome that hamburgers should become the official Italian food. But Americans falling from the sky? Jacobus flicked a penlight in the man’s eyes, testing his dilation. â€Å"Sir? Can you hear me? Do you know where you are?† The man was unconscious again. Jacobus was not surprised. The man had vomited a lot of water after Jacobus had performed CPR. â€Å"Si chiama Robert Langdon,† the nurse said, reading the man’s driver’s license. The group assembled on the dock all stopped short. â€Å"Impossibile!† Jacobus declared. Robert Langdon was the man from the television – the American professor who had been helping the Vatican. Jacobus had seen Mr. Langdon, only minutes ago, getting into a helicopter in St. Peter’s Square and flying miles up into the air. Jacobus and the others had run out to the dock to witness the antimatter explosion – a tremendous sphere of light like nothing any of them had ever seen. How could this be the same man! â€Å"It’s him!† the nurse exclaimed, brushing his soaked hair back. â€Å"And I recognize his tweed coat!† Suddenly someone was yelling from the hospital entryway. It was one of the patients. She was screaming, going mad, holding her portable radio to the sky and praising God. Apparently Camerlegno Ventresca had just miraculously appeared on the roof of the Vatican. Dr. Jacobus decided, when his shift got off at 8 A.M., he was going straight to church. The lights over Langdon’s head were brighter now, sterile. He was on some kind of examination table. He smelled astringents, strange chemicals. Someone had just given him an injection, and they had removed his clothes. Definitely not gypsies, he decided in his semiconscious delirium. Aliens, perhaps? Yes, he had heard about things like this. Fortunately these beings would not harm him. All they wanted were his – â€Å"Not on your life!† Langdon sat bolt upright, eyes flying open. â€Å"Attento!† one of the creatures yelled, steadying him. His badge read Dr. Jacobus. He looked remarkably human. Langdon stammered, â€Å"I†¦ thought†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Easy, Mr. Langdon. You’re in a hospital.† The fog began to lift. Langdon felt a wave of relief. He hated hospitals, but they certainly beat aliens harvesting his testicles. â€Å"My name is Dr. Jacobus,† the man said. He explained what had just happened. â€Å"You are very lucky to be alive.† Langdon did not feel lucky. He could barely make sense of his own memories†¦ the helicopter†¦ the camerlegno. His body ached everywhere. They gave him some water, and he rinsed out his mouth. They placed a new gauze on his palm. â€Å"Where are my clothes?† Langdon asked. He was wearing a paper robe. One of the nurses motioned to a dripping wad of shredded khaki and tweed on the counter. â€Å"They were soaked. We had to cut them off you.† Langdon looked at his shredded Harris tweed and frowned. â€Å"You had some Kleenex in your pocket,† the nurse said. It was then that Langdon saw the ravaged shreds of parchment clinging all over the lining of his jacket. The folio from Galileo’s Diagramma. The last copy on earth had just dissolved. He was too numb to know how to react. He just stared. â€Å"We saved your personal items.† She held up a plastic bin. â€Å"Wallet, camcorder, and pen. I dried the camcorder off the best I could.† â€Å"I don’t own a camcorder.† The nurse frowned and held out the bin. Langdon looked at the contents. Along with his wallet and pen was a tiny Sony RUVI camcorder. He recalled it now. Kohler had handed it to him and asked him to give it to the media. â€Å"We found it in your pocket. I think you’ll need a new one, though.† The nurse flipped open the two-inch screen on the back. â€Å"Your viewer is cracked.† Then she brightened. â€Å"The sound still works, though. Barely.† She held the device up to her ear. â€Å"Keeps playing something over and over.† She listened a moment and then scowled, handing it to Langdon. â€Å"Two guys arguing, I think.† Puzzled, Langdon took the camcorder and held it to his ear. The voices were pinched and metallic, but they were discernible. One close. One far away. Langdon recognized them both. Sitting there in his paper gown, Langdon listened in amazement to the conversation. Although he couldn’t see what was happening, when he heard the shocking finale, he was thankful he had been spared the visual. My God! As the conversation began playing again from the beginning, Langdon lowered the camcorder from his ear and sat in appalled mystification. The antimatter†¦ the helicopter†¦ Langdon’s mind now kicked into gear. But that means†¦ He wanted to vomit again. With a rising fury of disorientation and rage, Langdon got off the table and stood on shaky legs. â€Å"Mr. Langdon!† the doctor said, trying to stop him. â€Å"I need some clothes,† Langdon demanded, feeling the draft on his rear from the backless gown. â€Å"But, you need to rest.† â€Å"I’m checking out. Now. I need some clothes.† â€Å"But, sir, you – â€Å" â€Å"Now!† Everyone exchanged bewildered looks. â€Å"We have no clothes,† the doctor said. â€Å"Perhaps tomorrow a friend could bring you some.† Langdon drew a slow patient breath and locked eyes with the doctor. â€Å"Dr. Jacobus, I am walking out your door right now. I need clothes. I am going to Vatican City. One does not go to Vatican City with one’s ass hanging out. Do I make myself clear?† Dr. Jacobus swallowed hard. â€Å"Get this man something to wear.† When Langdon limped out of Hospital Tiberina, he felt like an overgrown Cub Scout. He was wearing a blue paramedic’s jumpsuit that zipped up the front and was adorned with cloth badges that apparently depicted his numerous qualifications. The woman accompanying him was heavyset and wore a similar suit. The doctor had assured Langdon she would get him to the Vatican in record time. â€Å"Molto traffico,† Langdon said, reminding her that the area around the Vatican was packed with cars and people. The woman looked unconcerned. She pointed proudly to one of her patches. â€Å"Sono conducente di ambulanza.† â€Å"Ambulanza?† That explained it. Langdon felt like he could use an ambulance ride. The woman led him around the side of the building. On an outcropping over the water was a cement deck where her vehicle sat waiting. When Langdon saw the vehicle he stopped in his tracks. It was an aging medevac chopper. The hull read Aero-Ambulanza. He hung his head. The woman smiled. â€Å"Fly Vatican City. Very fast.† 128 The College of Cardinals bristled with ebullience and electricity as they streamed back into the Sistine Chapel. In contrast, Mortati felt in himself a rising confusion he thought might lift him off the floor and carry him away. He believed in the ancient miracles of the Scriptures, and yet what he had just witnessed in person was something he could not possibly comprehend. After a lifetime of devotion, seventy-nine years, Mortati knew these events should ignite in him a pious exuberance†¦ a fervent and living faith. And yet all he felt was a growing spectral unease. Something did not feel right. â€Å"Signore Mortati!† a Swiss Guard yelled, running down the hall. â€Å"We have gone to the roof as you asked. The camerlegno is†¦ flesh! He is a true man! He is not a spirit! He is exactly as we knew him!† â€Å"Did he speak to you?† â€Å"He kneels in silent prayer! We are afraid to touch him!† Mortati was at a loss. â€Å"Tell him†¦ his cardinals await.† â€Å"Signore, because he is a man†¦Ã¢â‚¬  the guard hesitated. â€Å"What is it?† â€Å"His chest†¦ he is burned. Should we bind his wounds? He must be in pain.† Mortati considered it. Nothing in his lifetime of service to the church had prepared him for this situation. â€Å"He is a man, so serve him as a man. Bathe him. Bind his wounds. Dress him in fresh robes. We await his arrival in the Sistine Chapel.† The guard ran off. Mortati headed for the chapel. The rest of the cardinals were inside now. As he walked down the hall, he saw Vittoria Vetra slumped alone on a bench at the foot of the Royal Staircase. He could see the pain and loneliness of her loss and wanted to go to her, but he knew it would have to wait. He had work to do†¦ although he had no idea what that work could possibly be. Mortati entered the chapel. There was a riotous excitement. He closed the door. God help me. Hospital Tiberina’s twin-rotor Aero-Ambulanza circled in behind Vatican City, and Langdon clenched his teeth, swearing to God this was the very last helicopter ride of his life. After convincing the pilot that the rules governing Vatican airspace were the least of the Vatican’s concerns right now, he guided her in, unseen, over the rear wall, and landed them on the Vatican’s helipad. â€Å"Grazie,† he said, lowering himself painfully onto the ground. She blew him a kiss and quickly took off, disappearing back over the wall and into the night. Langdon exhaled, trying to clear his head, hoping to make sense of what he was about to do. With the camcorder in hand, he boarded the same golf cart he had ridden earlier that day. It had not been charged, and the battery-meter registered close to empty. Langdon drove without headlights to conserve power. He also preferred no one see him coming. At the back of the Sistine Chapel, Cardinal Mortati stood in a daze as he watched the pandemonium before him. â€Å"It was a miracle!† one of the cardinals shouted. â€Å"The work of God!† â€Å"Yes!† others exclaimed. â€Å"God has made His will manifest!† â€Å"The camerlegno will be our Pope!† another shouted. â€Å"He is not a cardinal, but God has sent a miraculous sign!† â€Å"Yes!† someone agreed. â€Å"The laws of conclave are man’s laws. God’s will is before us! I call for a balloting immediately!† â€Å"A balloting?† Mortati demanded, moving toward them. â€Å"I believe that is my job.† Everyone turned. Mortati could sense the cardinals studying him. They seemed distant, at a loss, offended by his sobriety. Mortati longed to feel his heart swept up in the miraculous exultation he saw in the faces around him. But he was not. He felt an inexplicable pain in his soul†¦ an aching sadness he could not explain. He had vowed to guide these proceedings with purity of soul, and this hesitancy was something he could not deny. â€Å"My friends,† Mortati said, stepping to the altar. His voice did not seem his own. â€Å"I suspect I will struggle for the rest of my days with the meaning of what I have witnessed tonight. And yet, what you are suggesting regarding the camerlegno†¦ it cannot possibly be God’s will.† The room fell silent. â€Å"How†¦ can you say that?† one of the cardinals finally demanded. â€Å"The camerlegno saved the church. God spoke to the camerlegno directly! The man survived death itself! What sign do we need!† â€Å"The camerlegno is coming to us now,† Mortati said. â€Å"Let us wait. Let us hear him before we have a balloting. There may be an explanation.† â€Å"An explanation?† â€Å"As your Great Elector, I have vowed to uphold the laws of conclave. You are no doubt aware that by Holy Law the camerlegno is ineligible for election to the papacy. He is not a cardinal. He is a priest†¦ a chamberlain. There is also the question of his inadequate age.† Mortati felt the stares hardening. â€Å"By even allowing a balloting, I would be requesting that you endorse a man who Vatican Law proclaims ineligible. I would be asking each of you to break a sacred oath.† â€Å"But what happened here tonight,† someone stammered, â€Å"it certainly transcends our laws!† â€Å"Does it?† Mortati boomed, not even knowing now where his words were coming from. â€Å"Is it God’s will that we discard the rules of the church? Is it God’s will that we abandon reason and give ourselves over to frenzy?† â€Å"But did you not see what we saw?† another challenged angrily. â€Å"How can you presume to question that kind of power!† Mortati’s voice bellowed now with a resonance he had never known. â€Å"I am not questioning God’s power! It is God who gave us reason and circumspection! It is God we serve by exercising prudence!† 129 In the hallway outside the Sistine Chapel, Vittoria Vetra sat benumbed on a bench at the foot of the Royal Staircase. When she saw the figure coming through the rear door, she wondered if she were seeing another spirit. He was bandaged, limping, and wearing some kind of medical suit. She stood†¦ unable to believe the vision. â€Å"Ro†¦ bert?† He never answered. He strode directly to her and wrapped her in his arms. When he pressed his lips to hers, it was an impulsive, longing kiss filled with thankfulness. Vittoria felt the tears coming. â€Å"Oh, God†¦ oh, thank God†¦Ã¢â‚¬  He kissed her again, more passionately, and she pressed against him, losing herself in his embrace. Their bodies locked, as if they had known each other for years. She forgot the fear and pain. She closed her eyes, weightless in the moment. â€Å"It is God’s will!† someone was yelling, his voice echoing in the Sistine Chapel. â€Å"Who but the chosen one could have survived that diabolical explosion?† â€Å"Me,† a voice reverberated from the back of the chapel. Mortati and the others turned in wonder at the bedraggled form coming up the center aisle. â€Å"Mr†¦. Langdon?† Without a word, Langdon walked slowly to the front of the chapel. Vittoria Vetra entered too. Then two guards hurried in, pushing a cart with a large television on it. Langdon waited while they plugged it in, facing the cardinals. Then Langdon motioned for the guards to leave. They did, closing the door behind them. Now it was only Langdon, Vittoria, and the cardinals. Langdon plugged the Sony RUVI’s output into the television. Then he pressed Play. The television blared to life. The scene that materialized before the cardinals revealed the Pope’s office. The video had been awkwardly filmed, as if by hidden camera. Off center on the screen the camerlegno stood in the dimness, in front of a fire. Although he appeared to be talking directly to the camera, it quickly became evident that he was speaking to someone else – whoever was making this video. Langdon told them the video was filmed by Maximilian Kohler, the director of CERN. Only an hour ago Kohler had secretly recorded his meeting with the camerlegno by using a tiny camcorder covertly mounted under the arm of his wheelchair. Mortati and the cardinals watched in bewilderment. Although the conversation was already in progress, Langdon did not bother to rewind. Apparently, whatever Langdon wanted the cardinals to see was coming up†¦ â€Å"Leonardo Vetra kept diaries?† the camerlegno was saying. â€Å"I suppose that is good news for CERN. If the diaries contain his processes for creating antimatter – â€Å" â€Å"They don’t,† Kohler said. â€Å"You will be relieved to know those processes died with Leonardo. However, his diaries spoke of something else. You.† The camerlegno looked troubled. â€Å"I don’t understand.† â€Å"They described a meeting Leonardo had last month. With you.† The camerlegno hesitated, then looked toward the door. â€Å"Rocher should not have granted you access without consulting me. How did you get in here?† â€Å"Rocher knows the truth. I called earlier and told him what you have done.† â€Å"What I have done? Whatever story you told him, Rocher is a Swiss Guard and far too faithful to this church to believe a bitter scientist over his camerlegno.† â€Å"Actually, he is too faithful not to believe. He is so faithful that despite the evidence that one of his loyal guards had betrayed the church, he refused to accept it. All day long he has been searching for another explanation.† â€Å"So you gave him one.† â€Å"The truth. Shocking as it was.† â€Å"If Rocher believed you, he would have arrested me.† â€Å"No. I wouldn’t let him. I offered him my silence in exchange for this meeting.† The camerlegno let out an odd laugh. â€Å"You plan to blackmail the church with a story that no one will possibly believe?† â€Å"I have no need of blackmail. I simply want to hear the truth from your lips. Leonardo Vetra was a friend.† The camerlegno said nothing. He simply stared down at Kohler. â€Å"Try this,† Kohler snapped. â€Å"About a month ago, Leonardo Vetra contacted you requesting an urgent audience with the Pope – an audience you granted because the Pope was an admirer of Leonardo’s work and because Leonardo said it was an emergency.† The camerlegno turned to the fire. He said nothing. â€Å"Leonardo came to the Vatican in great secrecy. He was betraying his daughter’s confidence by coming here, a fact that troubled him deeply, but he felt he had no choice. His research had left him deeply conflicted and in need of spiritual guidance from the church. In a private meeting, he told you and the Pope that he had made a scientific discovery with profound religious implications. He had proved Genesis was physically possible, and that intense sources of energy – what Vetra called God – could duplicate the moment of Creation.† Silence. â€Å"The Pope was stunned,† Kohler continued. â€Å"He wanted Leonardo to go public. His Holiness thought this discovery might begin to bridge the gap between science and religion – one of the Pope’s life dreams. Then Leonardo explained to you the downside – the reason he required the church’s guidance. It seemed his Creation experiment, exactly as your Bible predicts, produced everything in pairs. Opposites. Light and dark. Vetra found himself, in addition to creating matter, creating antimatter. Shall I go on?† The camerlegno was silent. He bent down and stoked the coals. â€Å"After Leonardo Vetra came here,† Kohler said, â€Å"you came to CERN to see his work. Leonardo’s diaries said you made a personal trip to his lab.† The camerlegno looked up. Kohler went on. â€Å"The Pope could not travel without attracting media attention, so he sent you. Leonardo gave you a secret tour of his lab. He showed you an antimatter annihilation – the Big Bang – the power of Creation. He also showed you a large specimen he kept locked away as proof that his new process could produce antimatter on a large scale. You were in awe. You returned to Vatican City to report to the Pope what you had witnessed.† The camerlegno sighed. â€Å"And what is it that troubles you? That I would respect Leonardo’s confidentiality by pretending before the world tonight that I knew nothing of antimatter?† â€Å"No! It troubles me that Leonardo Vetra practically proved the existence of your God, and you had him murdered!† The camerlegno turned now, his face revealing nothing. The only sound was the crackle of the fire. Suddenly, the camera jiggled, and Kohler’s arm appeared in the frame. He leaned forward, seeming to struggle with something affixed beneath his wheelchair. When he sat back down, he held a pistol out before him. The camera angle was a chilling one†¦ looking from behind†¦ down the length of the outstretched gun†¦ directly at the camerlegno. Kohler said, â€Å"Confess your sins, Father. Now.† The camerlegno looked startled. â€Å"You will never get out of here alive.† â€Å"Death would be a welcome relief from the misery your faith has put me through since I was a boy.† Kohler held the gun with both hands now. â€Å"I am giving you a choice. Confess your sins†¦ or die right now.† The camerlegno glanced toward the door. â€Å"Rocher is outside,† Kohler challenged. â€Å"He too is prepared to kill you.† â€Å"Rocher is a sworn protector of th – â€Å" â€Å"Rocher let me in here. Armed. He is sickened by your lies. You have a single option. Confess to me. I have to hear it from your very lips.† The camerlegno hesitated. Kohler cocked his gun. â€Å"Do you really doubt I will kill you?† â€Å"No matter what I tell you,† the camerlegno said, â€Å"a man like you will never understand.† â€Å"Try me.† The camerlegno stood still for a moment, a dominant silhouette in the dim light of the fire. When he spoke, his words echoed with a dignity more suited to the glorious recounting of altruism than that of a confession. â€Å"Since the beginning of time,† the camerlegno said, â€Å"this church has fought the enemies of God. Sometimes with words. Sometimes with swords. And we have always survived.† The camerlegno radiated conviction. â€Å"But the demons of the past,† he continued, â€Å"were demons of fire and abomination†¦ they were enemies we could fight – enemies who inspired fear. Yet Satan is shrewd. As time passed, he cast off his diabolical countenance for a new face†¦ the face of pure reason. Transparent and insidious, but soulless all the same.† The camerlegno’s voice flashed sudden anger – an almost maniacal transition. â€Å"Tell me, Mr. Kohler! How can the church condemn that which makes logical sense to our minds! How can we decry that which is now the very foundation of our society! Each time the church raises its voice in warning, you shout back, calling us ignorant. Paranoid. Controlling! And so your evil grows. Shrouded in a veil of self-righteous intellectualism. It spreads like a cancer. Sanctified by the miracles of its own technology. Deifying itself! Until we no longer suspect you are anything but pure goodness. Science has come to save us from our sickness, hunger, and pain! Behold science – the new God of endless miracles, omnipotent and benevolent! Ignore the weapons and the chaos. Forget the fractured loneliness and endless peril. Science is here!† The camerlegno stepped toward the gun. â€Å"But I have seen Satan’s face lurking†¦ I have seen the peril†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"What are you talking about! Vetra’s science practically proved the existence of your God! He was your ally!† â€Å"Ally? Science and religion are not in this together! We do not seek the same God, you and I! Who is your God? One of protons, masses, and particle charges? How does your God inspire? How does your God reach into the hearts of man and remind him he is accountable to a greater power! Remind him that he is accountable to his fellow man! Vetra was misguided. His work was not religious, it was sacrilegious! Man cannot put God’s Creation in a test tube and wave it around for the world to see! This does not glorify God, it demeans God!† The camerlegno was clawing at his body now, his voice manic. â€Å"And so you had Leonardo Vetra killed!† â€Å"For the church! For all mankind! The madness of it! Man is not ready to hold the power of Creation in his hands. God in a test tube? A droplet of liquid that can vaporize an entire city? He had to be stopped!† The camerlegno fell abruptly silent. He looked away, back toward the fire. He seemed to be contemplating his options. Kohler’s hands leveled the gun. â€Å"You have confessed. You have no escape.† The camerlegno laughed sadly. â€Å"Don’t you see. Confessing your sins is the escape.† He looked toward the door. â€Å"When God is on your side, you have options a man like you could never comprehend.† With his words still hanging in the air, the camerlegno grabbed the neck of his cassock and violently tore it open, revealing his bare chest. Kohler jolted, obviously startled. â€Å"What are you doing!† The camerlegno did not reply. He stepped backward, toward the fireplace, and removed an object from the glowing embers. â€Å"Stop!† Kohler demanded, his gun still leveled. â€Å"What are you doing!† When the camerlegno turned, he was holding a red-hot brand. The Illuminati Diamond. The man’s eyes looked wild suddenly. â€Å"I had intended to do this all alone.† His voice seethed with a feral intensity. â€Å"But now†¦ I see God meant for you to be here. You are my salvation.† Before Kohler could react, the camerlegno closed his eyes, arched his back, and rammed the red hot brand into the center of his own chest. His flesh hissed. â€Å"Mother Mary! Blessed Mother†¦ Behold your son!† He screamed out in agony. Kohler lurched into the frame now†¦ standing awkwardly on his feet, gun wavering wildly before him. The camerlegno screamed louder, teetering in shock. He threw the brand at Kohler’s feet. Then the priest collapsed on the floor, writhing in agony. What happened next was a blur. There was a great flurry onscreen as the Swiss Guard burst into the room. The soundtrack exploded with gunfire. Kohler clutched his chest, blown backward, bleeding, falling into his wheelchair. â€Å"No!† Rocher called, trying to stop his guards from firing on Kohler. The camerlegno, still writhing on the floor, rolled and pointed frantically at Rocher. â€Å"Illuminatus!† â€Å"You bastard,† Rocher yelled, running at him. â€Å"You sanctimonious bas – â€Å" Chartrand cut him down with three bullets. Rocher slid dead across the floor. Then the guards ran to the wounded camerlegno, gathering around him. As they huddled, the video caught the face of a dazed Robert Langdon, kneeling beside the wheelchair, looking at the brand. Then, the entire frame began lurching wildly. Kohler had regained consciousness and was detaching the tiny camcorder from its holder under the arm of the wheelchair. Then he tried to hand the camcorder to Langdon. â€Å"G-give†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Kohler gasped. â€Å"G-give this to the m-media.† Then the screen went blank. How to cite Angels Demons Chapter 126-129, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Organic Architecture Through Functionalism and Minimalism Essay Example

Organic Architecture Through Functionalism and Minimalism Essay The inspiration of nature in design created a movement of Organic Architecture through functionalism and minimalism since the 1800’s influencing some of the greatest architects to emerge. Functionalist architects and artists design utilitarian structures in which the Organic Architecture dictates the development within and moves outward in harmony with its surroundings, without regard to such traditional devices as axial symmetry and classical proportions or any other heavy ornamentation. Louis Henry Sullivans design theory that â€Å"form ever follows function† leads the dialogue towards a new world of design where the buildings effect on its surroundings is considered. Inspired by his mentor Frank Lloyd Wright expands on the design theory with â€Å"form and function should be one, joined in a spiritual union. † Nature is used in relation to building, materials and design. Phillip Johnson contributes to the movement with stating â€Å"Architecture is the art of how to waste space. By simplifying with the International Style which has geometric forms, open interiors, and the use of glass, steel, and reinforced concrete there is an unobstructed view of the exterior from the interior. Eero Saarinen pushed past what he called â€Å"The ABC’s of modernism â€Å"that were simple amp; abstract to utilizing new materials, innovative construction techniques, and sculptural forms in his design. He created some of the most interesting roofs. I intend on showing how each of these architects in their own contribution inspired awareness to nature and design. We will write a custom essay sample on Organic Architecture Through Functionalism and Minimalism specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Organic Architecture Through Functionalism and Minimalism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Organic Architecture Through Functionalism and Minimalism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The movement of Organic Architecture is a product of all their dedication and hard work. Louis Henry Sullivan (1856–1924) Louis Sullivan was born in Boston in 1856. He went to MIT before moving to Philadelphia then to Chicago. He also studied at L’Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. In the 19th century this school was considered just as prestigious as today’s most sought after graduate schools of fine arts. It attracted students from all over the world. The American Institute of Architects was formed in 1857. This caused universities like MIT and Columbia to offer degree programs in architecture. Ecole des Beaux Arts style stresses classical proportions, scale, balance, beauty, and an understanding of from the ancient world down through the Renaissance and its influence on architecture. Louis Sullivan thought both MIT amp; Ecole des Beaux Arts were disappointing do to the focus on the Renaissance and classical periods. He yearned for something outside the box. This hungry for more helped him be noted as one of the influential amp; innovative architect in movement of the modern period. When he returned from Paris partnered with Dankmar Adler and formed Adler Sullivan in Chicago in 1881. They both had specific roles in the firm. Sullivan with the design partner and Adler was the engineer. Chicago’s regrowth after the Chicago Fire 1871 was booming, so their timing was great! The two complemented each other creating an appreciation of their work because it pushed to a more forward thinking in design approach. For example the McVickers Theater which was remodeled in 1885 caused critics to proclaim their work genius! Sullivan used incandescent lighting and electric chandeliers when most were still gas lamps. After another fire in 1890 it was redesigned by Adler amp; Sullivan again. Sadly the building was demolished in 1985 and replaced with a new 40 building. McVickers Theatre, before the fire of 1871 McVickers Theatre, completed 1883-1885. Demolished 1922 Louis Sullivan rejected the standard classical design with detailed ornamentation was inspired by organic architectural elements inspired by nature. Sullivan was influenced by the theory of evolution by Charles Darwin. Most know Sullivan for creating the first skyscraper with the use of iron and steel skeletons. His designs of these vertical buildings were known as tall office buildings. He answered the need for more office, department stores and financial institution space in a city. He would use intertwining vines and organic ornamentation on these tall buildings growing into the sky. Sullivan stated; â€Å"It is the pervading law of all things organic, and inorganic, of all things physical and metaphysical, of all things human and all things super-human, of all true manifestations of the head, of the heart, of the soul, that the life is recognizable in its expression, that form ever follows function. (Cannon) From that moment on Functionalism in architecture is noticed. Functionalism in architecture means that the construction, types of materials and the purpose of the building should determine the design. In short take notice on how a building will affect its surroundings in the design process. Sullivan was a very talented architect. Looking through Louis Sullivan’s designs even in his residential designs there were tall doors, windows; it was very vertical similar to his skyscrapers. He was influenced by different periods but Victorian which was the one he mostly designed in he disagreed with. It was too much design not enough function. He stated in his autobiography that his love for nature came from years on his grandfather’s farm. â€Å"Sullivan solved the â€Å"problem† of the skyscraper† (Cannon) He looked at it as a column. It has all the parts; a base, shaft and capital. Examining this theory most of his work is based on this principle he had. The Wainwright Building is a perfect example of this theory. The Wainwright Building Location: 709 Chestnut Street, St. Louis, Missouri, USA Architect: Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler Year: 1890-91 Height: 147 feet Stories: 10 The Wainwright Building falls into his pattern of design: a basement for furnace and utilities, a two story base for shops and other retail spaces, a sill, and the multi-story office section with continuous vertical columns rising to the attic. Often decorated and capped by a decorative cornice. The Wainwright Building Location: 709 Chestnut Street, St. Louis, Missouri, USA Architect: Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler Year: 1890-91 Height: 147 feet Stories: 10 The Wainwright Building falls into his pattern of design: a basement for furnace and utilities, a two story base for shops and other retail spaces, a sill, and the multi-story office section with continuous vertical columns rising to the attic. Often decorated and capped by a decorative cornice. Before this prior attempts to build with steel looked tiered or stacked almost like a cake. The Wainwright building materials are sandstone, brick and windows. The first two stories have large deep windows and a modern approach to the brown sandstone due to the lacking of ornamentation. The next seven stories are red brick vertical columns with horizontal leaf decorated panels. The last story has round windows in terra cotta with a Notre Dame inspired leaf scroll. He wrote in the Lippincott’s Monthly Magazine, â€Å"The skyscraper must be tall, every inch. The tall force and power of altitude must be in it, the glory and pride of exaltation must be in it. It must be every inch a proud soaring thing, rising in sheer exultation that from bottom to top it is a unit without a single dissenting line. His description reminds me of Jack and the Beanstalk and how this large beautiful vine grew into the sky just as Louis Sullivan’s tall buildings. The Chicago Stock Exchange is one of the few that falls out of his theory of design. The Chicago Stock Exchange Location: 30 North LaSalle Street, Chicago, USA Architect: Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler Year: 1893-94 Stories: 13 Demolished: 1972 The Chicago Stock Exchange falls out of his pattern of design because it’s vertical height is not through uninterrupted columns but by projects bays with windows that began at the third floor sill to the bottom of the cornice. These windows are known as â€Å"Chicago Windows† The Chicago Stock Exchange Location: 30 North LaSalle Street, Chicago, USA Architect: Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler Year: 1893-94 Stories: 13 Demolished: 1972 The Chicago Stock Exchange falls out of his pattern of design because it’s vertical height is not through uninterrupted columns but by projects bays with windows that began at the third floor sill to the bottom of the cornice. These windows are known as â€Å"Chicago Windows† Chicago Window Window with one large fixed window in the middle of two narrow sash windows on either side Chicago Window Window with one large fixed window in the middle of two narrow sash windows on either side When designing his buildings he would push to the maximum size window permitted by the load bearing walls to allow natural light flood in. His way of thinking will encourage more efficient space planning, concern for natural light and ventilation for future architects. In 1895 Adler and Sullivan partnership ended. Sullivan continued but moved to small buildings in small towns. The National Farmers and Merchants National Banks are two of most memorable designs as an architect not a designer. The National Famers Bank Location: Ottawa, Minnesota Architect: Louis Sullivan Year: 1907-1908 Height: 53 feet The main area is a single cube within a enclosed box. The base is red sandstone with dark brick walls. Again he uses large windows that are arched and stained glass. The cornice is corbeled bricks. Sullivan used panels of ornamentation that were bronze, green terra cotta and cast iron. Attached to it is a separate rectangle that has offices amp; shops located in it. He still used his signature style but added the element of surprise in adding details. He stated his building anchors the lines of street facades. The National Famers Bank Location: Ottawa, Minnesota Architect: Louis Sullivan Year: 1907-1908 Height: 53 feet The main area is a single cube within a enclosed box. The base is red sandstone with dark brick walls. Again he uses large windows that are arched and stained glass. The cornice is corbeled bricks. Sullivan used panels of ornamentation that were bronze, green terra cotta and cast iron. Attached to it is a separate rectangle that has offices amp; shops located in it. He still used his signature style but added the element of surprise in adding details. He stated his building anchors the lines of street facades. Until a falling out about money Frank Lloyd Wright was and employee at Sullivan’s firm. He has always stated Sullivan was his â€Å"beloved master† and in the end paid for Sullivan’s funeral and headstone with a few other friends. His head stone reads, â€Å"Louis Henri Sullivan, by his buildings great in influence and power. His drawings unsurpassed in originality and beauty. His writings rich in poetry and prophesy. His teachings persuasive and eloquent, His philosophy where in â€Å"form follows function. † He summed up all the truth in art. Sullivan has earned his place as one if the greatest architectural forces in America. In testimony of these his professional and other friends have built this monument. â€Å"(Cannon) Frank Lloyd Wright (1867–1959) The solution of every problem is contained within itself. Its plan, form and character are determined by the nature of the site, the nature of the materials used, the nature of the system using them, the nature of the life concerned and the purpose of the building itself. (Frank Lloyd Wright) Frank Lloyd Wright learned form and function form Sullivan but brought it to a new level with â€Å"Form and function should be one, joined in a spiritual union† (Wright). This inspired Wright to create Prairie and Usonian style. Prairie style is a one or two story house built with brick or wood covered with stucco. The eaves of the low pitched roof extend well past the wall which creates a horizontal a low to the ground appearance. In the Midwest where Prairie style was started this would aid in blending the house with the flat prairie land. The extension of walls past the interior would create terraces or balconies. Casement windows in horizontal bands across the house were common. This aided in emphasizing the length of the house. Where we use white trim on the exterior is popular today, dark wood trim against light stucco or brick is used in Prairie Style. Usonian style similar to Prairie style had low roofs, open living space but Usonian was a smaller home. It was the home every American could afford. The Robie House by Wright located in Chicago designed in Prairie Style: A. Low Pitched Roof B. Brick Finish C. Balcony D. Casement windows with leaded panes E. Brick wall with stucco ledge or coping The Robie House by Wright located in Chicago designed in Prairie Style: A. Low Pitched Roof B. Brick Finish C. Balcony D. Casement windows with leaded panes E. Brick wall with stucco ledge or coping We have discussed how Sullivan brought functionalism to architecture; now let’s talk about how Wright brought Naturalism into architecture. Falling Water is a perfect example of how nature is use in relation to the building design, materials used and the placement on the site. The use of the four square rooms is lost and an open concept floor plan emerges. The use of glass is abundant. This allows views of the exterior to be inviting by the interior, allowing the two to complement each other. Falling Water Location: Bear Run, PA Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright Year: 1936 1939 Falling Water Location: Bear Run, PA Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright Year: 1936 1939 Phillip Johnson (1906-2005) Eero Saarinen (1910-1961) Born in Finland the family immigrated to the US in 1929. Saarinen attended the Academie de la Grande Chaumiere where he studied sculpture, then went on to Yale for architecture. His father being an accomplished architect when he passed in 1950, Eero took over the family practice at Saarinen amp; Associates. Saarinen partnered with Charles Eames in a new movement in furniture. They designed furniture with molded limited wood. Having an education in sculpture can easily be seen in his furniture pieces such as the â€Å"grasshopper† armchair or his â€Å"Womb† collection. His furniture is still trendy by today’s standards with the use of woods, metals and plastics it fits easily into any decor. Grasshopper Armchair The Womb Chair and Ottoman the Womb Settee Saarinen’s inspiration came in many forms, colors and materials. His designs as an architect were equally as sculpted and free formed as his furniture. Dramatic shapes amp; different textures was his signature in Modern design. His believed each building was unique in its requirements inside and its relationship to the outside site. Each form is designed with its relationship to a larger part in mind at all times. Known for his unique roofs and the motion he created with the design his architectural work stands out in individuality. When designing Yale Hockey Rink he combined soaring concrete arches with a roof on suspended steel cables. D. S. Ingalls Hockey rink, Yale University, New Haven Connecticut is a great example of Modern architecture. Eero Saarinen designed this building without any traditional boundaries. The roof has no set pitch and is a free form that looks like the motion of water. It is made of manmade and factory made materials such as concrete and steel. Even the landscape is minimal and sterile. This build has an undulating roof that is seen in in architecture today. It is commonly seen in modern airport terminals, and the glass front and glass doors seen in most commercial building front facades. D. S. Ingalls Hockey rink, Yale University, New Haven Connecticut is a great example of Modern architecture. Eero Saarinen designed this building without any traditional boundaries. The roof has no set pitch and is a free form that looks like the motion of water. It is made of manmade and factory made materials such as concrete and steel. Even the landscape is minimal and sterile. This build has an undulating roof that is seen in in architecture today. It is commonly seen in modern airport terminals, and the glass front and glass doors seen in most commercial building front facades. Eero Saarinen is said to have had an â€Å"Anti-Miesiam Stance† (Ludwig Mies van der Rohe known for his practice of Less is More in design) and is against less is more. This brings me to the Trans World Airlines Terminal at Kennedy Airport. This is considered his greatest building he designed. It expresses his believe that architecture should â€Å"stimulate mans imagination or give man confidence or make him feel proud. †(Saarinen) A theme of motion amp; excitement is used throughout the terminal. The main lobby is two cantilevered shells turned slightly giving it is bird like shape. Trans World Airlines Terminal at Kennedy Airport 1956-62. Large windows allow the indoors to flow into the outdoors. Every wall and line is curved. Each space is designed for that specific areas needs then blends into where it merges with it next creating one continuous design. It closed in 2001 and they hope to reopen in sometime soon. Trans World Airlines Terminal at Kennedy Airport 1956-62. Large windows allow the indoors to flow into the outdoors. Every wall and line is curved. Each space is designed for that specific areas needs then blends into where it merges with it next creating one continuous design. It closed in 2001 and they hope to reopen in sometime soon. These are not all completed in MLA I am working on getting them correct. Sources: Lonsinger, â€Å"Craftsmen Perspective†, http://www. craftsmanperspective. com, 6 April 2010, Web, 6/5/12 ReDo, â€Å"Form Ever Follows Function†, http://www. redo-stl. com/design-decoration/form-ever-follows-function-find-your-design-inspiration/, Web, 6/6/12 About. com, Web, 6/6/12  http://architecture. about. com/od/periodsstyles/g/organic. htm Eleman,â€Å"Legacy Essay- Frank Lloyd Wright and the Principles of Organic Architecture †, http://www. pbs. rg/flw/legacy/essay1. html, Web. ,b 6/6/12 Cronon,â€Å"Legacy Essay An Excerpt From â€Å"Inconstant Unity: The Passion of Frank Lloyd Wright† †, http://www. pbs. org/flw/legacy/essay1. html, Web. ,6/6/12 The theory of architecture: concepts, themes amp; practices  By Paul-Alan Johnson, Louis Sullivan: Creating a New American Architecture by Patrick F. Ca nnon Museum of Modern art, Web, 6/6/12, http://www. metmuseum. org/toah/hd/acam/hd_acam. htm http://architecture. about. com/od/skyscrapers/ig/Skyscrapers/Wainwright-Building-. htm Louis Henry Sullivan, Web, 6/12/12, http://architect. architecture. k/louis-henry-sullivan-architect/louis-henry-sullivan-architect. php http://architecture. about. com/od/20thcenturytrends/ig/Modern-Architecture/International-Style. htm http://www. cpdit01. com/resources/planning-and-development. fountains-monuments-and-sculptures/Grant%20Park/Chicago%20Stock%20Exchange%20Arch. pdf http://dig. lib. niu. edu/ISHS/ishs-2005spring/ishs-2005spring051. pdf http://www. patsabin. com/illinois/mcvickers. html http://www. greatbuildings. com/buildings/National_Farmers_Bank. html http://www. dwr. com/category/designers/r-t/eero-saarinen. do http://www. greatbuildings. com/buildings/TWA_at_New_York. html